Soccer Goals, Diversity Goals — FIFA World Cup 2014
by Margaret Manalo
Published: July 23rd
1. Officially named “association football,” from which nation did the term “soccer” emerge?
D. the United States
2. FIFA was founded on May 21, 1904 in which nation’s headquarters?
3. True or False: FIFA’s primary objective is “to improve the game of football constantly and promote it globally in the light of its unifying, educational, cultural and humanitarian values, particularly through youth and development programmes.”
4. Where in the FIFA Statutes does it state active prevention of racism and any form of discrimination within the sport and its international competitions?
A. article 1
B. article 2
C. article 3
D. article 4
5. How many rulings are currently in effect to determine a player’s nationality eligibility for a team?
6. Partially due to immigration trends, which country has the most dual national players?
C. the United States
7. True or False: Hong Myung-Bo, past captain of Korea Republic, stated, “To think of something like discrimination itself is discrimination in football.”
1. [C] Britain.
Amidst the excitement and friendly competition of the FIFA World Cup, many still wonder why the sport is so commonly called “soccer” by Americans when it is called “football” by everyone else. Believed to have originated in Britain about 200 years ago, the term “soccer” developed from “association football” – the sport’s official name. When more versions of the game evolved to include Rugby Football, colloquialisms were adopted by the British to help distinguish each game. Stefan Szymanski, a University of Michigan professor, recently wrote a paper concerning this topic and stated, “The rugby football game was shortened to ‘rugger,’ a term recognized in British English to the present day, and the association football game was, plausibly, shortened to ‘soccer.’”
Thomas, E. (2014, June 13). This Is Why We Call It 'Soccer,' Not 'Football'. The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 4, 2014, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/06/13/soccer-not-football-_n_5492714.html
2. [D] France.
On May 21, 1904, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) was founded in the headquarters of the Union Française de Sports Athlétiques at the Rue Saint Honoré 229 in Paris, France. Authorized representatives from France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland all signed the foundation act. Upon that meeting, the first FIFA Statues were determined. Today, FIFA is governed by Swiss law and based in Zurich, Switzerland.
Classic Football. (n.d.). FIFA.com. Retrieved July 5, 2014, from http://www.fifa.com/classicfootball/history/fifa/foundation.html
The Organisation. (n.d.). FIFA.com. Retrieved July 5, 2014, from http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/organisation/index.html
3. [A] True. FIFA’s brief, yet powerful, claim is simply: “For the Game. For the World.” Following their claim of dedication is their global mission statement. FIFA spreads the success of the annual FIFA World Cup to support football development projects in their 209 member associations across the globe, to secure a solid foundation for the sport worldwide. FIFA’s second objective is to organize international tournaments “to touch, unite, and inspire the world.” Revenue from the FIFA World Cup (the biggest single-sport competition in the world) serves to develop women’s and youth football, beach soccer, futsal, and also the Interactive World Cup. FIFA then aims to “improve the lives of young people and their surrounding communities, to reduce the negative impact of our activities and to make the most we can of the positives.” While keeping the environment and communities in best interest, FIFA also believes that “everybody has the right to play football free from discrimination or prejudice and we are striving to ensure that this is the case.”
The Organisation. (n.d.). FIFA.com. Retrieved July 5, 2014, from http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/organisation/mission.html
4. [C] article 3.
FIFA’s dedication in its fight against racism and discrimination is expressed in article 3 of the FIFA Statutes: “Discrimination of any kind against a country, private person or group of people on account of ethnic origin, gender, language, religion, politics or any other reason is strictly prohibited and punishable by suspension or expulsion.” This year, the annual FIFA Anti-Discrimination Days coincide with the quarter-finals of the FIFA World Cup Brazil, when the unequivocal message that “there is no place for racism in football” shall be spread. Aside from this event, the opening match of the 2014 FIFA World Cup included words from Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, and FIFA President Blatter. Due to the power of sports to bring people together from all walks of life, they called upon governments, civil society, the football community, participants and fans, to “reaffirm the importance of promoting peace and fighting all forms of discrimination during the FIFA World Cup and beyond.”
2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil - Organisation - Anti-discrimination - FIFA.com. (n.d.). FIFA.com. Retrieved July 5, 2014, from http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/organisation/sustainability/anti-discrimination.html
FIFA World Cup in Brazil to promote peace and fight all forms of discrimination. (2014, June 12). FIFA.com. Retrieved July 5, 2014, from http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/news/y=2014/m=6/news=fifa-world-cuptm-in-brazil-to-promote-peace-and-fight-all-forms-of-dis-2-2368962.html
5. [B] Two.
Due to FIFA’s stature as a world football governing body, the organization is responsible for maintaining rules that determine a football player’s eligibility to represent a certain county for the international competitions. In the beginning, it was possible for a player to represent different national teams, as long as the player held the country’s citizenship. Then in 2004, FIFA enacted a new ruling requiring a player to demonstrate a “clear connection” to the country they wish to represent, in response to the growing trend towards naturalization of foreign players in some countries. Starting January 2004, a player is able to represent one country at youth international level and another at senior international level as long as the player applied before their 21st birthday under the two following specifications: “the player must have at least one parent or grandparent who was born in that country, or the player must have been a resident in that country for at least two years.” In May 2008, FIFA’s Congress extended the residency requirement from two to five years for players lacking birth or ancestral connections with a specific country to preserve the integrity of the competitions involving national teams.
Toh, F. V. (2013, December 26). Cameroon: Concerning FIFA's Eligibility Rules for Young Players. allAfrica.com. Retrieved July 5, 2014, from http://allafrica.com/stories/201312270905.html
6. [B] Argentina.
Back in 2004, Qatar attempted to buy their way to the World Cup by promising Brazilian players Ailton, Dede, and Leandro one million dollars in exchange for representing Qatar. This was when FIFA implemented the new statute that players must have a “clear connection” to the country they wish to represent should the country not be their place of birth. Today, dual nationals are the result of increasing global migration. An estimate by the United Nations states that 232 million people, about 3.2% of the world’s population are migrants – someone who has crossed an international border – which is up from 154 million in 1990. Consequently, children of these migrants often hold dual or multiple citizenship, creating complex negotiations over the country they wish to represent. Out of the 958 players announced on the initial 30-man rosters, 30% are dual nationals. Argentina contains the most dual national players with 24, while Ecuador and South Korea have none. The primary reason for Argentina’s high number, along with Australia, Brazil, and Uruguay is due to the waves of migration from Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Another reason for the increasing dual nationals is merely so that players may advance their careers playing for different countries.
Keyes, D. (2014, June 13). How Does Immigration Affect the Teams at the World Cup? Pacific Standard. Retrieved July 5, 2014, from http://www.psmag.com/navigation/politics-and-law/immigration-soccer-sports-fifa-russian-russia-and-algerias-french-national-team-world-cup-83368/
7. [A] True.
Now currently in charge of Korea Republic’s U-23 national team, Hong met up with FIFA.com at the National Football Centre to share his thoughts on discrimination and the many experiences he had throughout his lifetime involvement in football. Following his statement, Hong continues, “I mean, for instance, players may have different nationalities, skin colours or faces, but they have something in common. They only try their best to achieve the goal of winning games, so in that sense, there’s no room for discrimination in football.” After experiencing difficulties as the minority on his team while playing in Japan, Hong concluded that differences in local culture (especially the “complicated relationship” between South Korea and Japan) along with language should be the extent of any possible barriers. Hong stated, “I’d be exaggerating if I said I was discriminated while I was playing in Japan. In my first games there, I felt like my team-mates were not passing the ball to me and I couldn’t do anything but to just wander around the pitch until the final whistle. At first I got very angry and wondered why, but after a while those things didn’t happen to me anymore. I’d day that was just difficulties, not serious enough to be called discrimination.” For the next generation, Hong advises that despite differing countries and backgrounds, teammates should all learn to get along. Concerning FIFA and the football family’s fight against discrimination, Hong believes that punishing the club in question is the best systematic solution as “the clubs are responsible for the education of the fans and the prevention of racism in the stadium.”
Social Responsibility. (2011, May 31). FIFA.com. Retrieved July 5, 2014, from http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/socialresponsibility/antiracism/interviews/newsid=1444329/index.html