How are disabilities being handled in Peru?
by Barbara Deane
Published: October 19th
October celebrates Disability Employment Awareness month in the United States. Just as the United States has a long way to go to include people with disabilities, so do other countries. Our editor-in-chief, Barbara Deane, is traveling in Peru this month, so this quiz illuminates some of her discoveries and experiences regarding disability issues in this South American country. Using your knowledge of disabilities in your country, take this quiz to figure out what is happening in Peru!
1. 1. What is the Spanish word used in Peru to refer to "disability"?
A. minusvalía (handicap))
B. discapacidad (disability)
C. falta de las habilidades (lack of ability)
2. How much money did the Peruvian government allocate in its 2013 national budget to address issues of disability? (Nuevo Sol, or soles, is the name of the Peruvian currency)
A. 150 million, 760 thousand soles ($54,016,094.47 USD)
B. 375 million, 500 thousand soles ($134,538,627.46 USD)
C. 576 million 892 thousand soles ($206,695,759.97 USD)
3. As a result of the recent remodel of the central plaza in the northern Peruvian city of Piura, how many ramps were installed in the sidewalks and curbs to facilitate wheelchair access or easier walking access?
4. The Peruvian government has passed a new law (Ley 29973) that will take effect in December 2013 that raises the quota for employing people with disabilities. What do you think these quotas are?
A. Increasing from 3% to 5% in the public sector, and up to 3% in the private sector
B. Increasing to 7% in the public sector, and up to 5% in the private sector
C. Increasing to 3% in the public sector and 2% in the private sector
5. According to Wilfredo Guzmán, head of the National Council for the Integration of the Person with Disability, one of the major tasks is education. Which of the following do you think captures his vision for such education?
A. Families need to prepare themselves because children with disabilities will be going to schools.
B. People with disabilities need to be educated to understand that a disability is a situation, a circumstance that they can rise above.
C. Classes about disabilities should be part of the curriculum at all educational levels.
D. All of the above.
E. Only B & C.
6. Based on Barbara's experience of visiting several cities in Peru, (including Lima, Arequipa, Puno, Cusco, Ollantaytambo and Trujillo), what did she notice about people who were sight impaired?
A. They simply begged in the streets to earn money.
B. They performed on the street to earn money (such as singing, playing musical instruments).
C. She saw no sight-impaired people in public.
7. What percent of people with disabilities are not active in the labor force in Peru?
8. What is one of the difficult barriers to increasing the number of people with disabilities in the workforce in Peru?
A. Both families and businesses tend to see people with disabilities as a burden.
B. People with disabilities don’t have the necessary skills.
C. It is hard to navigate a city in Peru to look for work, get to interviews, because of the lack of access.
9. Barbara saw one person with a disability on the street in the northern city of Trujillo (in the company of another person) who seemed to be living a more normal life—in other words, he was well dressed, talking with his companion, and going somewhere. What disability did he have?
A. He was in a wheelchair, so some kind of lack of mobility.
B. He lacked an arm.
C. He was sight-impaired.
1. [B] Discapacidad is the word the Peruvians use to refer to disability. On September 27, 2013, the national newspaper, El Comercio, held a special hearing to analyze the advances and the tasks still to accomplish in regard to people with disabilities in Peruvian society. The newspaper featured an article about the event in its September 25 edition in which the writer stated, "Our society is not as inclusive as we need to be."
2. [C] 576 million 892 thousand (Nuevo) soles ($206,695,759.97 USD) were allocated in the 2013 national budget to address disability, according to Wilfredo Guzmán, president of the National Council for the Integration of the Person with Disability (CONADIS). Although this amount is insufficient according to Guzmán, it represents a substantial amount. The problem is that local and regional governments are not investing money that reaches the level of the national budget. Last year, the budget allocated 525 million 825 thousand soles for disability, but “local and regional governments only used 170 million soles [of this amount],” he said. The source for this question (see below) did not elaborate on how the national monies were being allocated or dispersed.
3. [C] Zero! The city of Piura did not install any ramps when it recently remodeled its central plaza according to Jorge Balbín Cóndor, president of the Pro Work Association. Balbín Cóndor added that even the ramps at the Pieuran airport did not meet the regulated measurements. He added that on a national scale, cities are simply not complying with the requirements of accessibility. "There is neither interest nor commitment regarding the subject of disabilities," he indicated.
4. [A] The quotas will rise from 3 to 5% in the public sector, and up to 3% in the private sector. But Balbín Cóndor of the Pro Work Association says that without adequate education, many of these jobs will remain unfilled.
5. [D] All of the above. Guzmán envisions that education for equality falls not only to the State, but also to the society, and that people with disabilities as well as families need to educate and prepare themselves. Guzmán says that although there has been progress, there is still much to do to achieve full inclusion so that people with disabilities particulate in the economic, social, political and cultural aspects of life. Balbín Cóndor of the Pro Work Association agrees that education is key so that people with disabilities can improve their life conditions and obtain decent employment.
6. [B] Barbara noticed that sight-impaired people were more likely to perform in the streets, singing or playing musical instruments to earn money. None were simply begging as other people with disabilities were, such as a person who had no hands, or a man whose legs were deformed and couldn’t walk, so he sat on the street begging passersby for a little money. Barbara saw three people in wheel chairs in Trujillo, one man without legs, a little girl without legs, and an older man with legs who was navigating himself across a street using a ramp. She asked him if it was hard to navigate the city in a wheel chair (silla de ruedas) and he replied yes, but he added that if you believe in Jesus Christ, it gives you strength. He appeared to have had more means based on the quality of his clothing and his overall appearance whereas the others in wheel chairs were obviously poor.
7. [B] 76% of people with disabilities are inactive, that is, not working in regular jobs in the labor force, according to the minister of labor, Nancy Laos. She also said that few people with disabilities, who are employed, live independently.
8. [A] Families tend to see family members with disabilities as a burden, as do businesses, according to the minister of labor, Nancy Laos. On the contrary, she says persons with disabilities should be viewed as people with multiple capacities. Laos indicated that her ministry will work to promote opportunities for people with disabilities, and will also provide training to the business sector.
9. [C] He was sight impaired. Barbara couldn’t tell if he was partially sighted or not, but he was definitely relying on his companion for guidance in walking along the street in Trujillo, and he definitely did not have eyes that focused normally. So of all the people with disabilities that Barbara saw on the streets in the various Peruvian cities she visited, only two people seemed to be going about their lives without being involved in earning money on the street.
Flores Tello, E. (2013, Sept. 25). El camino para lograr inclusión plena es largo. El Comercio. A13.
TheMoneyConverter.com. Retrieved from: http://themoneyconverter.com/USD/PEN.aspx